1 ** How did the god Apollo become involved in colonization? Who was the Pythia? What did generous contributors to this shrine get as a reward? (Its Greek name is "promanteia.") (59)


2 ** What did Sappho write about? What characterizes her poetry?


3 ** What was the Delian League, and how did its members come into Athenian control? (107)

4 ** How did 'ostracism' work? Why was it so named? Why was it invented? (111-112)

5 ** How did Archaic statues differ from statues in the Classical period? (121-123)


6 ** What did 'sophists' do, and what was their reputation? Who was an important sophist, and what did he teach? (141-142)


7 ** Why did the Athenians not put Alcibiades on trial right away to test the charges of impiety against him? (158-159)


8 ** What happened at the battle of Marathon, the battle of Thermopylae, and the battle of Salamis? (xix-xx)

9 ** Why -- and how -- did Xerxes punish the Hellespont and his original bridge makers? What does Herodotus think of these actions? (167)

10 ** What "unpopular" opinion does Herodotus feel the need to express about the Persian Wars? Why do you think he makes this statement? Why do you think it was "unpopular"? (177-178)

11 ** How did Xerxes prepare a false battlefield scene at Thermopylae for sightseers? Why did he do it? (207)

12 ** What does Artemisia advise that Xerxes do after the battle of Salamis? What is his reaction? How would you characterize their relationship? (226-227)

13 ** What honors did Themistocles receive for his role in repelling the Persians? What honor did he FAIL to receive? (232-233)

14 ** How did Greek sacrifices affect their participation in the battle of Plataea? What does this tell us about Greeks' attitude towards their religion? (236-237)


15 ** What examples does Thucydides use in cautioning about the use of archaeological information without other sources? When he says we have no good reason to measure a city more by its "appearance than its power," what Greek word does he use for "appearance"? (6-7)

16 ** In what ways does Thucydides say that his History will be more accurate than previous accounts? (12)

17 ** What does Thucydides say about the accuracy of the speeches which he records in his History? (13)

18 ** What does Thucydides consider to be the true cause of the war between the Peloponnesians and Athenians? (15)

19 ** The Corinthians urge the Spartans to declare war on Athens, and point out the contrasting characters of the Athenians and Lacedaemonians. What are the main differences they see between the two sides? (17-20)

20 ** Why does Thucydides say that he chooses to describe the plague in such detail? Why should we take his account as accurate? (47)

21 ** According to Thucydides, how did the plague affect Athenians' attitude towards morals and worshipping the gods? (49-50)

22 ** How did the Athenians -- according to Thucydides -- bring harm to their state after the death of Pericles? (57)

23 ** Whose advice do the Athenians follow in the Mytilenaean debate, and how do they punish the Mytilenaeans for their rebellion? (75)

24 ** How did the centrality of stasis change the way people used language during the Peloponnesian War? (90-91)

25 ** Why was Nicias opposed to the Sicilian Expedition? Give at least three of his arguments. (113-117)

26 ** Why, according to Thucydides, was Alcibiades eager to support and lead the Sicilian Expedition? (116-117)

27 ** Why does Thucydides call the Sicilian disaster the greatest action in all of Greek history? (152-153)


28 ** How does the Watchman describe Clytemnestra? How does this foreshadow her later actions?

29 ** How did Clytemnestra get the news of Troy's downfall overnight?

30 ** What does Cassandra tell the Chorus at 1090 ff that they do not understand at first? Who are the small children wailing? See also line 1218. What does the Chorus finally understand about it? (1242)

31 ** What does Cassandra tell the Chorus about her relationship with Apollo? (1202ff)

32 ** Clytemnestra says that she was only an agent, but the real killer was something else. What does she claim that it was? And what is the Chorus' response to her claim? (1500)


33 ** Why did Clytemnestra send libations to the grave of Agamemnon? (514ff)

34 ** Write a few sentences about the importance and meaning of Apollo and his oracles in THE LIBATION BEARERS (269ff, 557, 808, 900, 939, 953, 1030, 1059ff).


35 ** What kind of reciprocity does the Ghost of Clytemnestra expect from the Furies? Why does she refer to a "hunting net"? How might this reference to a "net" recall the death of Agamemnon? (105ff)

36 ** Why do the Chorus members refer to "these new gods" at line 162? Why are there so many references to "old" and "young" gods in this play? (349, 393, 490, 727, 731, 778, 848, 883)

37 ** Why does Apollo say that the "mother" is not the "true parent"? What example does he give to prove this? (657ff)

38 ** How does Athena establish the court of the Areopagus? What historical event in Athenian history might this passage reflect? (681ff, and note)

39 ** This play is also called EUMENIDES. Why? (1003ff, and note)


40 ** Why does Dionysus say he has stung the Theban women into madness?

41 ** What happened to Actaeon, Pentheus' cousin? Why does Cadmus bring up his story?

42 ** How does Dionysus persuade Pentheus to dress up in women's clothes?

43 ** What strange kind of thyrsus does Agave carry back to Thebes? What is her own perception of it before she sees her father?


44 ** In the Agon, Inferior Argument ('Unjust Discourse') debates with Superior Argument ( 'Just Discourse'). List three arguments or points each says on behalf of itself, or against its opponent. (pp. 72-80)

45 ** How does Strepsiades have a change in his religious outlook at the end of the play? (p. 102-103)


46 ** What is the argument which CONTRACLEON uses in the Agon to prove that his father is a victim, and not a master? (p. 174-79)

47 ** Why does PROCLEON faint when his juryman's ballot is counted? What does this tell us about his character? (p. 198)


48 ** What two examples do MAKEMEDO and GOODHOPE give of the kind of city they want to live in? (lines 127-142) What does this tell us about their idea of 'the good life'?

49 ** Why does GOODHOPE prefer the Cock instead of Athena as divine protector of the new city? (826)

50 ** What are the 'owls' from Laurium,' and why do the birds promise these to the people? (line 1107, and note on line 302)

51 ** How does MAKEMEDO treat the goddess Iris? Give some examples of his insults. What does this tell us about how Old Comedy treats the gods? (lines 1198 ff.)

52 ** How does the play end? How does this ending compare or contrast with the endings of the other two comedies we just read: Clouds and Wasps?


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