(from Twenty-Questions for the Writer, p. 113-4)
The word "transition" means passing over. Thus transitional guides are connectives (symbols,words, phrases; sometimes whole sentences and paragraphs) that make possible a smooth "passing over" from one idea to the next. You make transitions by referring to what you have said before,establishing cause-and-effect connections, looking ahead to what you will say, referring to the present, marking time and place, qualifying, comparing, contrasting. These and other common transitional devices appear here in categories that necessarily overlap to some extent.
Referring back: as we have seen, on the whole, as mentioned above, as stated previously, as I have said, it seems then
Looking ahead. then, later, next, after, afterward, thereafter, finally, now, consequently, to sum up
Establishing causal connections: the result, in conclusion, to conclude, because, for, since, consequently, accordingly, hence, thus, therefore
Time markers: now, then, later, soon, before, next, afterward, finally, meanwhile, thereafter, at the same time
Place markers: here, there, at this point, below, beside, next to, behind, in front, outside, inside
Comparing and establishing degree: and, similarly, in like manner, in the same way, just as, so ... that, also, more than, less than, beyond this
Qualifying conceding, or contrasting: but, nevertheless, on the other hand, however, despite this, still, on the contrary, conversely, if, as if, granted that, unless, whether, anyhow, although, even though, yet
Adding and intensifying: first, second, third; a, b, c, 1, 2, 3, to repeat, in addition, moreover, and, also, still, again, similarly, furthermore, finally, really, indeed
Introducing an illustration: thus, to illustrate, for example, for instance
Repeating a key word: This device keeps the main idea before the reader and carries the thread of meaning throughout a passage.
Using synonyms: Instead of repeating a key word so that it becomes monotonous, you may use suitable synonyms that continue the same thought.
Using proper pronoun reference: Another substitute for the repetition of key nouns and another way of connecting ideas is to use pronouns in place of nouns.
Maintaining same subject throughout paragraph: You can often continue the same subject from sentence to sentence, thereby maintaining a steady focus throughout the paragraph.
Establishing repetitive or parallel sentence patterns: In addition to repeating key words and ideas, you may repeat the grammatical structure of your sentences to reinforce the unity of your thoughts and promote their flow.
Linking of last sentence of one paragraph with first sentence of next: This natural, frequently intuitive method maintains coherence between paragraphs. Sometimes you may need connecting words (such as "then again" or "on another occasion"), but often the direction of the thought provides its own continuity.
LIST OF TRANSITIONS
1. Transitions that add, repeat, or emphasize:
to sum up
in other words
as a result
in the end
2. Transitions that compare, contrast, or contradict:
as, as if
in spite of
on the other hand
to the contrary
3. Transitions that show a time or space relationship:
from . . . to
4. Transitions that limit or prepare for an example:
5. Transitions that signal cause or result:
as a result
for this reason
6. Transitions that assert a truth or acknowledge opposition:
without a doubt
7. Transition can also be effectively accomplished by repeating a key term or phrase:
In 1949, a new trend began as Oklahoma voters approved a state bond issue for higher education facilities. This first state bond issue injected $36 million into the system to strengthen its infrastructure.
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