- The Food Safety Consortium Newsletter
- Vol. 11, No. 2
- Spring 2001
OFPA Focuses on Food Safety at Convention
- * Food Processors
Go Back to Basics
- * Allergens' Impact
- * Report From
- * 21st Rapid Methods
Conference Set at KSU
- * Restructured
Beef Merits Extra Attention to Risk
- * ISU Revisits
Conventional Wisdom of Pork Production
- * Papers and
- * Food Safety
- OFPA Focuses on Food Safety at Convention
A food industry official who describes his job as "keeping
politics out of food safety in Washington" said the American
food industry "really does drive food safety in the country."
Kelly Johnston, in his address to the 95th annual convention
of the Ozark Food Processors Association, discussed his responsibilities
as the National Food Processors Association's executive vice
president for government affairs and communications. The OFPA,
in associaton with the University of Arkansas Institute of Food
Science and Engineering, featured food safety and quality as
the theme of its convention and exposition in March in Springdale,
Johnston expressed relief that food safety did not become politicized
during the 2000 presidential campaign. He predicted that there
would not be much happening in development of new food safety
policy during the next two years, but that government funding
for regulatory agencies would have the most impact on implementation
Johnston said efforts to improve food safety are under assault
from several fronts. Foremost among them is the problem of emerging
pathogens. As scientists learn more about how to fight bacteria,
they often find new dangers. A few years ago, for example, E.
coli O157:H7 was known to be a danger to meat, but no one
thought it would survive in apple juice until an outbreak occurred.
"Modern-day Luddites" who oppose irradiation and biotechnology
also hinder food safety efforts, Johnston said. "For the
last 50 years we've had the most bizarre federal policy because
of opposition to irradiation," he said, noting that government
has classified irradiation of foods as an additive. Industry
has petitioned government agencies to remove that classification
on grounds that irradiation is a method of pasteurization of
food rather than an additive.
Events in Europe also have threatened confidence in food safety
in the U.S., Johnston said. The outbreak of mad-cow disease in
Europe has caught the attention of Americans. Johnston credited
the Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Department of Agriculture
with good work, but food processors are worried about surveys
that show consumers are considering cutting back on beef because
of the problems in Europe.
"We're confident that the secretary (of agriculture) and
industry are doing everything possible to keep the disease out
of the U.S.," Johnston said.
He noted that consumers' preferences have created new areas of
concern for food safety. "More people are now using ready-to-eat
foods," Johnston said. Because people are spending less
time preparing foods in the kitchen, they don't know as much
about food safety as earlier generations. "We are vulnerable
on basic consumer education in food safety."
Food processors "are primarily responsible for the safety
of our products," Johnston said. "We have to do everything
we can to see that consumers have full confidence in the food
safety regulatory system so we don't go the way of Europe."
Johnston said that President Bush has acknowledged calls for
establishment of a single food safety agency in the federal government,
but his administration has not taken a stand on the issue. Johnston
said NFPA also has not taken a stand but is aware of the pros
and cons of the question. Currently, responsibility for food
safety is divided among several agencies depending on the specific
type of food or function to be performed.
"On the whole, it could be good," Johnston said. "But
merging the regulatory agencies is premature before food safety
policies are coordinated among the agencies." Canada has
merged responsibilities for inspection of all foods, which Johnston
said makes sense. He said industry should seek to drive the design
of any new agency established by the government.
- Food Processors Go Back to Basics
- It never hurts to review the basics, which
is what John Marcy of the University of Arkansas did for the
Ozark Food Processors Association at its annual convention in
March in Springdale, Ark. Marcy, an Extension food scientist
and Food Safety Consortium researcher, summarized the dangers
of the organisms that cause foodborne illnesses.
The "big three" bacteria that cause the most foodborne
illnesses are Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium
perfringens, Marcy said. But there are qualifiers. For example,
data from 1996 to 1999 showed that Campylobacter caused
more diarrheal illness than Salmonella, although the numbers
declined in 1999.
Clostridium botulinum is a severe organism because it
creates a nerve toxin. "The place we have controlled this
is in the canned food industry," Marcy said. Foods with
pathogenic bacteria can infect people who eat them, but food
with toxins are different. It isn't necessary to eat the living
organism to become sick. "All you have to do is eat the
food that contains the toxin."
Pathogenic bacteria are different from spoilage bacteria. "Spoilage
bacteria break down food components and make it unusable and
distasteful," Marcy said. "You don't want to eat it,
but that doesn't mean it's unsafe. We have this concept that
the food went bad. That doesn't mean that it's safe or unsafe.
It just means it's bad.
"The quality factor of spoilage is different from pathogens
that can cause disease from food. That's why when we talk about
HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points), we have
to focus on food safety issues versus quality issues."
Bacteria need six things to grow: food, acidity, time, temperature,
oxygen and moisture. Some bacteria that require atmospheric oxygen
are the ones that cause spoilage. "That's why when we try
to extend the shelf life of meat and poultry we vacuum package
it," Marcy said. "That slows down the spoilage bacteria
dramatically, but it doesn't stop it."
Other bacteria that require no oxygen and will perish if exposed
to oxygen, such as Clostridium, which needs anaerobic
Viruses are sometimes misunderstood. Unlike bacteria, they do
not grow on food. Food is the means of transferring a virus from
fecal matter to humans by ingestion. Viruses transmitted this
way can cause hepatitis A, which requires 30 to 45 days of incubation
before someone becomes sick.
Hepatitis A can spread through restaurants if their employees
do not wash their hands routinely. By the time a restaurant discovers
that one of its employees has become sick, it's too late. "You
can't wait for them to get sick to send them home," Marcy
said. "They've already infected people. How many times have
you read in the newspaper, 'If you ate here this week, go to
the health department.'?"
Impact Gains Attention
- Allergens - the substances that cause
allergic reactions - are "an evolving food safety issue"
that has received increased attention from industry and government
in the past few years. Henry Chin, vice president of the National
Food Processors Association Center for Technical Assistance,
says labeling, consumer awareness and industry's good manufacturing
practices are the keys to fighting the problem.
Chin, speaking to the Ozark Food Processors Association annual
convention in March in Springdale, Ark., said that the Food and
Drug Administration's priorities in the early 1990s were microbial
pathogens, nutritional issues and environmental contaminants.
In 1996, then-FDA Commissioner David Kessler added another one
to the list when he told industry there was a major public health
problem with allergens in foods.
About 1 to 2 percent of adults have food allergies. Five percent
of children are allergic but most of them outgrow the allergies,
Chin said. For some people who are allergic, coming into contact
with allergens can cause severe reactions.
Eight foods account for 90 percent of food allergens, Chin said:
peanuts, eggs, milk, legumes, tree nuts, fish, mollusks and wheat.
Before 1988, there were no food recalls associated with allergens,
but there has been a steady increase since 1993. "That doesn't
mean we're getting careless in terms of labeling nor that we're
finding more people who are allergic," Chin said. "It
just means there is greater awareness of this issue now."
Among some allergic people, "symptoms can occur within minutes
of exposure," Chin said. "Sensitive individuals can
react within a minute. Often the most sensitive individuals may
die within 30 minutes."
Reactions can be triggered by small amounts of allergens, such
as traces of peanut butter left on knife. With no cure for allergies,
Chin said the only feasible action for individuals who suffer
from them is to avoid foods with allergens.
"Labeling in terms of processed foods or packaged foods
is key in terms of conveying information to the consumer about
the presence or absence of an allergen," he said. Consumers
and food processors need to be aware of what's in the ingredients.
"In terms of risk analysis and risk assessment, we need
to identify whether the product contains one of the eight major
food allergens," Chin said. A peanut butter manufacturer,
for example, obviously knows that the product has an allergen.
But a chili manufacturer needs to stop and consider whether any
of the product's ingredients contain peanuts, or if peanuts are
the base of any flavorings.
Food processors need to have preventive plans that examine where
in processing that a hazard could be introduced into the product
stream and whether cleaning processes are adequate on machines
that process both products with and without allergens.
If a recall is necessary, Chin said, the Food Allergy Network
is available to work closely with companies. Upon notification
by a company that a recall is being implemented, Food Allergy
Network notifies its members - consumers with food allergies
- to beware of the particular product.
- Report From the Coordinator
- By Gregory Weidemann
- The unfamiliar face you see in the photograph
accompanying this column deserves some introduction. I am Gregory
Weidemann, the new coordinator of the Food Safety Consortium
and chair of its steering committee.
I began my duties in this position in January, shortly after
Charles Scifres left the University of Arkansas and the FSC coordinator's
duties upon his acceptance of a new administrative job at Texas
I currently serve as the interim dean of the Dale Bumpers College
of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at Arkansas, but I am
no stranger to the FSC. I have served on the FSC steering committee
for the past few years representing our university in my capacity
as associate director of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment
My work on the committee has enabled me to become acquainted
not only with our researchers' food safety projects here at the
University of Arkansas, but also with our FSC colleagues' work
at Iowa State University and Kansas State University. Our annual
meetings have been productive sessions for all involved and have
been excellent sources for information exchange.
The FSC faces a full agenda in the coming months. The change
in presidential administrations may bring new people to the U.S.
Department of Agriculture in food safety and it will be our job
to begin to know them.
We are also looking ahead to our annual meeting in September,
which will be held this year at Iowa State University. We are
trying something new this time with a half-day conference scheduled
to begin immediately after the annual meeting. A panel of prominent
experts in risk assessment is being assembled for the occasion,
which will be open to the public. Details will be announced soon
but we are already assured that the event will be an innovative
addition to our gathering.
The research led by our personnel at the three universities continues
to be the reason for our existence. Their work attracts attention
in both the research and industrial communities worldwide. Discussions
of food safety are not restricted to scientists and food industry
executives but now include consumer advocates, government officials
and the general public. As an organization of scientists, we
are expected to communicate with the various constituencies of
food safety. In a sense, the entire nation is depending on us
in our work. We owe them a return on their investment.
- 21st Rapid Methods Conference Set at KSU
- The 21st annual Rapid Methods and Automation
in Microbiology Workshop is set for July 6-13 at Kansas State
University in Manhattan. Daniel Fung, a Food Safety Consortium
investigator and KSU food science professor, is the workshop
The workshop is designed for microbiologists, food scientists,
medical technologists, consultants, quality assurance and control
managers, laboratory directors and researchers.
Visiting professors at the conference will be Millicent C. Goldschmidt,
a professor at the University of Texas Health Science Center
Dental Science Institute and expert on microbiological instrumentation,
and J. Stanley Bailey, a research microbiologist with the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and adjunct professor of poultry science
at the University of Georgia. Nelson A. Cox, a USDA research
microbiologist, is an honorary visiting professor. Randall Phebus,
a KSU associate professor of food science, is the workshop assistant
An mini-symposium will be held July 6-7 for those unable to stay
for the full workshop.
The workshop registration fee is $1,755 for the eight-day event
or $455 for only the mini symposium. Information on registration
is available by calling the KSU Division of Continuing Education
at 1-800-432-8222 or 785-532-5569 or through the web site at
which has a full schedule of events. Accommodations will be handled
and charged separately through the Manhattan Holiday Inn or KSU
- Restructured Beef Merits Extra Attention to Risk
- Anyone who has dined on "restructured"
or "mechanically tenderized" beef probably didn't know
it. These processes yield meat products that generally appear
to be whole muscle cuts. However, they offer the advantages of
being uniform in shape and tenderness. As a group, products that
are made using these and other tenderization technologies are
referred to as "non-intact."
Do these products pose a different level of risk compared to
intact, whole-muscle counterparts? Extensive research at Kansas
State University's Food Safety Consortium unit is addressing
this question to make processing and cooking recommendations
designed to improve their safe preparation.
Restructuring is a procedure often used to produce meat products
for restaurants and food service operations. Pieces of meats
from different cuts are bound together using enzymes or other
binding technologies to create a more usable product. The process
can be used to make a more high-end product and cause it to appear
more uniform, an important characteristic for food service, "like
a whole piece of muscle," explained Randall Phebus, an associate
professor of food science and Food Safety Consortium researcher.
But the resulting meat isn't intact muscle, so the risk of microbial
contamination can be higher unless appropriate processing and
cooking guidelines are followed.
With whole muscle meat products, bacteria are confined at or
near the surface of the meat and are easily killed during even
minimal cooking, thus assuring their safety. But the restructuring
process carries formerly exterior surfaces into the interior
of the product. If those surfaces are contaminated with pathogenic
bacteria, these harmful bacteria could be distributed throughout
the interior of the product in fairly high concentrations.
"In this situation, the center of the cut (slowest heating)
must reach lethal temperatures to acceptably control the risk;
much like cooking ground beef patties," Phebus said. "A
rare to medium rare restructured steak may pose a risk to the
Blade tenderization is a more widely utilized technology in which
narrow blades are passed through the meat subprimal to break
connective tissue and provide more uniform tenderness of the
final products. This process results in a "non-intact"
muscle. However, the final product does not appear different
from an "intact" counterpart to an average consumer.
The penetration of the blades through the exterior surface of
the meat could potentially carry bacterial contamination into
the interior of the product. KSU studies looked at the resulting
distribution of bacteria throughout the products and identified
cooking protocols that would effectively eliminate that level
of bacteria present in the center of resulting meat cuts.
By artificially inoculating the meat surfaces with E. coli
O157:H7, Phebus' team found that approximately 3 to 5 percent
of the external contamination is typically carried to the center
of the product. Oven broiling of steaks cut from these blade-tenderized
subprimals indicated that this level of potential contamination
is effectively controlled by cooking to an internal temperature
of 60 degrees C (140 degrees Fahrenheit).
Further studies have shown that gas grilling of these steaks
may provide less control in achieving the target 140-degree F
internal temperatures because the meat is heated from one side
at a time. Also, the edges of steaks tend to curl and lose contact
with the grill. Using weights placed on top of the steaks can
minimize this curling.
The most important finding from these studies, according to Phebus,
is the realization that it is not scientifically valid to classify
as "non-intact" all meat products produced through
restructuring, mechanical tenderization, marination and injection
"Our studies with both beef and pork products clearly demonstrate
that the bacteriological risks associated with different product
types that are lumped into the non-intact category are very different,"
Phebus said. "Food service cooking recommendations and regulatory
considerations for production of these products must consider
these risk differences. Blanket statements and recommendations
should not be made in regards to their safety."
"Our studies document that restructured beef and pork products
appear to pose a higher level of risk in terms of pathogenic
contamination compared to other products considered non intact,"
said James Marsden, a KSU Food Safety Consortium researcher who
participated in the studies. "However, these risks can be
minimized if processors operate within a well-designed, scientifically
validated HACCP system." HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Point) systems are science-based procedures used by food
processors that intervene at key points to reduce the likelihood
of pathogens being in raw materials.
"If this approach is not taken," Marsden continued,
"then restructured steaks should be cooked according to
USDA ground beef recommendations - to an internal temperature
of 71 degrees C (160 degrees F). If an effective HACCP plan is
in operation, lower and more desirable end-point temperatures
can be safely utilized for restructured products."
Revisits Conventional Wisdom of Pork Production
- It may be time to rethink the ways that
pork producers process swine from the farm to the slaughterhouse,
or abattoir. The goal is to reduce the prevalence of pathogenic
bacteria on the animals as much as possible before they are harvested
and their carcasses are taken through the processing plants.
Some conventional wisdom on the best ways to do that may be giving
way to new possibilities.
The process that has been under study by Food Safety Consortium
investigators at Iowa State University is called "all-in,
all-out" management. That means a group of swine are raised
on the farm together and shipped to the abattoir together without
interacting with other groups of swine. The opposite procedure
is continuous flow, in which individual pigs don't stay exclusively
with the same set of pigs throughout their lives but are mingled
with others all the way to the abattoir.
The point of this segregation of swine is to limit the introduction
of different organisms to the swine, explained Jim McKean, an
ISU extension veterinarian who led the study.
"With all-in, all-out you have the opportunity to clean
and sanitize the holding facility before the animals come in,"
he said. "All the animals which are the primary reservoir
of infectious disease in there are removed as well. So you can
remove the primary reservoir and then you remove the environmental
contamination by cleaning disinfectant, and then you put the
new batch of swine in. That's the theory behind all-in, all-out."
All-in, all-out is a popular procedure with hog producers. McKean
said recent surveys showed about 60 percent of producers use
it at least nominally. That share of producers accounts for about
75 percent of all the hogs going through the systems.
But all-in, all-out can fall short of its goal and still facilitate
the transmission of disease. Birds, rodents, flies and other
organisms can transmit bacteria into whatever environment the
hogs are segregated, and the damage is done.
ISU surveyed swine herds in Iowa and North Carolina to see how
well served they were by all-in, all-out. Samplings of the cohorts
of swine on the farm and later at the abattoir showed mixed results,
with levels of pathogens, especially Salmonella, significantly
higher at the abattoir in many cases. The figures suggest that
somewhere from the farm to the abattoir, the all-in, all-out
method is failing to prevent contamination.
McKean said the preliminary data would indicate that contamination
most likely occurs during transport to the abattoir and during
the animals' stay at the abattoir. More research is needed to
pinpoint the trouble. Results from future findings would likely
have a strong influence on HACCP procedures between the swine
farm and the processor.
Any future study would have to start by determining the goal,
McKean said. "Is it to have minimal Salmonella in
the animal or no Salmonella in the carcass that results
from the harvesting of those animals?"
An effort to keep Salmonella out of the animal from the
start is probably doomed to fail, he said, because of the environmental
contamination by rodents and birds around production systems
and the prevalence of Salmonella when animals are commingled
at the abattoir before slaughter, or harvest. HACCP procedures
at the processing stage are intended to clean the carcasses of
whatever pathogen they may have imported.
During the time the swine spend waiting in pens at the abattoir
before harvest, exposure to animals from other farms at those
pens can contribute to contamination, as can the stress of transport
to the facility.
This situation leads to the question of whether on-farm precautions
to minimize Salmonella carriage are beneficial if the
swine become contaminated once they leave the farm. "If
you're going to gain any benefits from changes on the farm, then
the swine either can't go through that leveling area (transport
and abattoir pens) or you've got to modify that area to stop
the transmission of the Salmonella during that time," McKean
The differences in the environment can be dramatic. McKean explained
that his group's study showed that 30 hogs a week over 10 weeks
registered only one serotype of Salmonella at the farm.
At the plant, the hogs were found to have 15 other serotypes,
plus the on-farm serotypes after they had been waiting with the
other hogs for two hours.
The analysis suggests that "some of this environmental contamination
may be from the animals who were in that pen the last time immediately
preceding the test animals," McKean said. "If everyone
on the other farms reduced their level, you might be able to
reduce this contamination at the plant."
Denmark has been trying that route. McKean said the Danes have
concentrated on farm level contamination. Farms are grouped according
to their contamination levels and kept segregated from groups
with different contamination levels all the way through processing.
In the U.S., the problem still appears to be focused on the holding
pens in the abattoirs and finding ways to intervene there. Various
interventions including pen sanitation, animal movement and feed
or water additives to reduce Salmonella loads have been
proposed and require investigation.
"If you're going to reduce the Salmonella exposures
to carcasses, you have essentially two places to do that,"
he said. "One is the incoming product and the other is activities
within the plant."
If no more than 5 percent of the swine on the farm are infected
and that level can be maintained through processing, that allows
less opportunity for mistakes to be made while butchering.
"If 95 percent of your animals didn't have Salmonella
in the gut, then those few that can cause contamination would
be greatly reduced, as opposed to 40 to 70 percent currently
being presented," McKean said.
Papers and Presentations
- James Denton,
Arkansas, participated in meetings of the National Advisory Committee
on Meat and Poultry Inspection in October, the National Alliance
for Food Safety Board of Directors meeting in October in College
Station, Texas, and the International HAACP Alliance Board of
Directors meetings in December in Chicago and in March in Atlanta.
Yanbin Li and Yongcheng Liu, both of Arkansas,
received a $130,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
National Resources Inventory. The project is titled "An
Immuno Electrochemical-Optical Biosensor With a Capillary Bioseparator/Bioreactor
for Rapid Detection of Pathogens in Poultry and Meat Products."
Yanbin Li, Yongcheng Liu and Yihua Che, all of
Arkansas, published "Rapid Detection of Salmonella typhimurium
Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Immuno-optical Sensing Method"
in the Journal of Sensors and Actuators, 72 (3): 214-218.
Rong Murphy, Arkansas, delivered a presentation on "Thermal
Inactivation Kinetics of Pathogens in Commercial Meat Products"
to the Symposia of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Division at
the annual meeting of the Southern Association of Agricultural
Scientists in January in Fort Worth, Texas.
Rong Murphy, Ellen Johnson, Michael Johnson and Bradley
Marks, all of Arkansas, delivered presentations on "Growth
of Salmonella and Listeria in Thermally-Processed Poultry Products
During Refrigerated Storage" and "Microbial Lethality
Kinetics in Poultry Products During Convection Cooking"
at the 2000 Institute of Food Technologists meeting in Dallas.
They also presented a paper on "Factors Affecting the Thermal
Inactivation of Bacteria in Poultry Products During Air Convection
Cooking" at the 2000 International Association for Food
Protection meeting in Atlanta. Murphy, Ellen Johnson and
Marks presented a paper on "Evaluating Thermal and
Physical Properties of Poultry Products During Air Convection
Cooking" as ASAE Paper No. 006080 in Milwaukee.
Murphy, Ellen Johnson, John Marcy and Michael Johnson,
all of Arkansas, published "Survival and Growth of Salmonella
and Listeria in the Chicken Breast Patties Subjected to Time
Temperature Abuse Under Varying Conditions" in Journal of
Food Protection, 64: 23-29.
Murphy, Marks, Ellen Johnson, Michael Johnson and H.
Chen published "Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Salmonella
and Listeria in Ground Chicken Breast Meat and Liquid Medium"
in Journal of Food Science, 65 (4): 706-710.
Murphy and Marks published "Effect of Meat
Temperatures on Proteins, Texture and Cook Loss for Ground Chicken
Breast Patties" in Poultry Science, 79: 99-104.
James Huss and Dan Henroid, both of Iowa State,
have been recognized by several institutions for the ISU food
safety web site and on-line instruction for consumers and industry.
U.S. News and World Report listed the site in the nutrition and
health category of its "Best of the Web" edition on
Dec. 4, 2000. The site was the only academic food safety web
site recommended in the Environmental Protection Agency's Internet
News Brief on Nov. 24, 2000. The site was also recommended for
information about turkey food safety in an Access Magazine article,
"It's Time to Talk Turkey," on Nov. 19, 2000. The Tufts
Nutrition Navigator rated the site "Among the Best"
on Nov. 24, 2000. The Des Moines Register featured the web site
on Aug. 3, 2000, in an article, "Fair Judges Trust in Food
Safety." The Register also recognized the site as one of
the most interesting Iowa-based web sites in an article on July
31, 2000. Self magazine featured the web site in an article in
the December 2000 edition.
Harley Moon, Iowa State, has received a grant from the
National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes
and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to study novel colonization
factors of E. coli O157:H7. The grant runs through August 2003.
Moon also received a grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
National Resources Inventory to study the effect of antibiotics
on Shiga toxin phage movement in ruminants. The grant runs through
Moon has also been interviewed about the European bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) outbreak by National Public Radio, WOI Radio
in Ames, Iowa, and The Des Moines Register.
Nancy Cornick, Sheridan Booher, Tom Casey and Harley
Moon, all of Iowa State, have published "Persistent
Colonization of Ruminants by Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other
E. coli Pathotypes" in Applied Environmental Microbiology,
66(10): 4926-4934, 2000.
Ilze Matise, Nancy Cornick, Sheridan Booher, J.E. Samuel,
B.T. Bosworth and Harley Moon, all of Iowa State,
have published "Intervention With Shiga Toxin (Stx) Antibody
After Infection by Stx-producing Escherichia coli" in Journal
of Infectious Diseases, 183: 347 359, 2001.
Curtis Kastner, Kansas State, has delivered several presentations
on food safety in recent months. He spoke on "Animal Science
Research Update" in October in St. John, Kan.; on "Meat
Quality and Safety - Current and Future" in October to the
National Association of College and university Food Service annual
meeting at Kansas State University; on "Meat Safety and
Research" in February to the Western Regional Research meeting
in Denver; on Technology Product Development and Safety issues
in an Extension presentation in March in Medicine Lodge, Kan.,
and on "Research Philosophy" in March at Oklahoma State
Kastner also received the Advanced Degree Graduate of Distinction
Award from Oklahoma State University.
Curtis Kastner, E.A.E. Boyle, R. Danler, Donald Kropf, Randall
Phebus, Harshavardhan Thippareddi and Sean Fox, all
of Kansas State, received a $200,186 grant from the U.S. Department
of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service for the project
titled "Merchandising Value-Added Lamb Shoulder to the Food
Daniel Y.C. Fung, L. K. Thompson, Beth Ann Crozier-Dodson
and Curtis Kastner, all of Kansas State, have published
"Hands-Free, 'Pop-Up' Adhesive Tape Method for Microbial
Sampling of Meat Surfaces" in Journal of Rapid Methods and
Automation in Microbiology, 8: 209.
R.R. Hendricks, E.A.E. Boyle, Curtis Kastner and Daniel
Y.C. Fung, all of Kansas State, have published "Compilation
of Intervection Methods and Conditions, and Ingredient Limits,
for Controlling Campylobacter jejuni in Meat and Poultry Products"
in Journal of Rapid Methods and Automation, 8: 285.
- Food Safety Digest
By Dave Edmark
- As mad cow disease disrupts the European
meat industry, a Swiss professor is predicting that a preventive
therapy may be five years off. Adriano Aguzzi was quoted in March
in the German newspaper Die Welt as saying the treatment
would focus on prion, the infectious agent that penetrates cows'
brains and cause deterioration. A treatment would stop prion
* * *
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has established a toll-free
telephone center to respond to questions from the public, industry,
and media regarding USDA's response to the outbreak of foot-and-mouth
disease in Europe. The toll-free number is 1-800-601-9327. International
callers can reach the center by dialing 01-301-734-9257.
The phone center is
staffed by veterinarians and import/export experts from USDA's
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service who can explain the
restrictions and regulations impacting people and products arriving
at U.S. ports-of-entry from foot-and-mouth disease affected countries.
FMD is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease
of ruminants and swine. The United States has been free of FMD
since 1929. FMD is one of the animal diseases that livestock
owners dread most because it spreads widely and rapidly and because
it has grave economic consequences. Humans are not susceptible
to the disease.
* * *
The American Medical Association is offering a primer on foodborne
illness designed to assist health professionals. It's called
"Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illness: A Primer
for Physicians" and is available on the web at http://www.ama-assn.org/foodborne.
The AMA produced the material in cooperation with the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the U.S. Department
of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service.
The primer provides current information for the diagnosis, treatment
and reporting of foodborne illnesses. It also provides health
care professionals with patient education materials on prevention
of foodborne illness. Physicians can earn three hours of Category
I Continuing Medical Education or Continuing Education Units
from the primer.
The primer contains four patient scenarios on botulism poisoning,
E. coli O157:H7 infection, enterotoxigenic E. coli
infection and Listeria monocytogenes.
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