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Support of Arkansas's Wine and Grape Industry - Uncorking Arkansas's Wine Country
It is generally agreed that it is critical that the U.S. winegrape industry become more competitive globally. One of the many ways to accomplish this is by reducing production labor input through vineyard mechanization. However, changes in grape production systems affect quality and yield, therefore research on the nature of these changes is essential.
Research at the University of Arkansas over the past 35 years has concentrated on the concept of complete systems of mechanization - that is, mechanization of every cultural operation throughout the season. Studies have detailed the the mechanization of vienyard operations such as dormant pruning, canopy management, shoot and fruit thinning, shoot positioning, summer shoot pruning, and leaf removal.
The Morris-Oldridge system of total vineyard mechanization incorporates more than 40 different machines and attachments that allow the mechanization of 12 of the major trellising systems used throughout the world. In April 2002, the University of Arkansas was granted a patent for this system. The system has been extensively tested in Arkansas, California and New York vineyards and this testing is on-going. Research has shown that vineyards using this total system can maintain fruit quality while producing consistent annual yields.
Mechanized systems also have been developed for other small fruits such as blackberries and strawberries.
Morris, J.R. and G.L. Main. 2010. Response of Concord grapevines to varied shoot positioning and pruning methods in a warm, long-season growing region. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 61: 201-213.
Morris, J., G. Main, R. Threlfall, and K. Striegler. 2009. Initial response of 'Concord' and 'Sunbelt' grapes to pruning and fruit thinning. HortTech. 19:368-378.
Bates, T.R. and J.R. Morris. 2009. Mechanical cane pruning and crop adjustment decreases labor costs and maintains fruit quality in New York 'Concord' grape production. HortTech 19:247-253.
Main, G. and J.R. Morris. 2008. Mechanical and minimal pruning of Cynthiana grapes: Effects on yield components and juice and wine composition. In Proceedings of 23rd Annual Midwest Grape and Wine Conference, Justin R. Morris Vineyard Mechanization Symposium, R.K. Striegler, A. Allen, E. Bergmeier, and J. Harris (Eds.), February, pp. 97-111. Osage Beach, Missouri.
Morris, J.R. 2008. Commercialization of the Morris-Oldridge Vineyard Mechanization System. In Proceedings of 23rd Annual Midwest Grape and Wine Conference, Justin R. Morris Vineyard Mechanization Symposium, R.K. Striegler, A. Allen, E. Bergmeier, and J. Harris (Eds.), February, pp. 9-30. Osage Beach, Missouri.
Morris, J.R., G.L. Main, R.T. Threlfall, and R.K. Striegler. 2008. Initial impact of pruning and fruit thinning applications on growth and composition of Concord and Sunbelt grapes. In Proceedings of the Justin R. Morris Vineyard Mechanization Symposium. R. K. Striegler, A. Allen, E. Bergmeier, J. Harris (Eds). Pp. 112-129. Osage Beach, MO. February 2-3, 2008.
Morris, J.R. 2007. Development and commercialization of a complete vineyard mechanization system. HortTech. 17(4):411.
Thomsen, M. and J. Morris. 2007. Economics of mechanizing pre-harvest vineyard operations. Wine East 2007 Buyers' Guide. p. 6.
Morris, J. 2006. Development and incorporation of mechansation into intensely managed grape vineyards. Keynote Paper WG6, In Paper and Abstract Book, Sixth International Cool Climate Symposium for Viticulture & Enology, February 6-10, Christchurch, New Zealand. p. 68.
Morris, J. 2005. Successful total vineyard mechanization. Vineyard & Winery Management. 31(1):84.
Morris, J. 2004. Vineyard mechanization - A total systems approach.. Wines and Vines. 85(4):20.
Morris, J.R. 2002. Vineyard mechanization: A system approach. Western Fruit Grower. 122(2):1.
Morris, J.R. and T.L. Oldridge. 2002. University of Arkansas. Vineyard apparatus, system, and method for vineyard mechanization. U.S. Patent 6,374,538.
Morris, J.R. 2001. Progress report for project total vineyard mechanization to optimize yield and quality of Concord, Vitis labruscana, grape production. Viticulture Consortium, NYDEAS Report p.138. (23KB)
Morris, J. 2001. Precision viticulture - A mechanized systems approach. Proc. ASEVES Cool Climate Conf., Ontario p.103. (407KB)
Morris, J.R. 2000. Vineyard mechanization for New York. Proc. Viticulture 2000 p. 28.
Morris, J.R. 2001. Past, present, and future of vineyard mechanization. In: Proc. Amer. Soc. Enol. Vitic. 50th Ann Mtg. Seattle, Washington. June 19-23, 2000. J.M Rantz (ed.) pp. 155-164. (1,268KB)
Morris, J.R. 1999. Developing mechanized systems for producing, harvesting, and handling brambles, strawberries, and grapes. HorTech. 9(1):22. (202KB)
Morris, J.R. 1996. A total vineyard mechanization system and its impact on quality and yield. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. Enol., NY. (89KB)
Morris, J.R. 1994. Mechanical harvesting and vineyard mechanization. Wine East Buyers' Guide. p. 4.
Morris, J.R. 1993. Effects of mechanical pruning and mechanical shoot positioning on yield and quality of grapes. Proc. 2nd N.J. Shaulis Grape Symp. Fredonia State Univ., Fredonia, NY. p. 57. (197KB)
Spayd, S.E., Morris, J.R., Ballinger, W. and Himelrick, D.G. 1990. Maturity standards, harvesting, postharvest handling, and storage. In "Small Fruit Crop Management," G.J. Galletta and D.G. Himelrick (eds.) Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. (284KB)
Morris, J.R. 1990. Fruit and vegetable harvest mechanization. Food Tech. 44(2):97. (76KB)
Morris, J.R. 1988. Fruit utilization and mechanization. Ark. Farm Res. 37(3):10. (19KB)
Morris, J.R. 1986. Preparing the vines for the age of mechanization. Vineyard and Winery Management. 12(3):37.
Morris, J.R. 1986. Mechanizing Concord vineyards for greater profits. Proc. 107th Annu. Mtg. Ark. State Hort. Soc., p. 146. (47KB)
Morris, J.R. 1985. Approaches to more efficient vineyard management. HortSci. 20:1008. (156KB)
Morris, J.R. 1983. Influence of mechanical harvesting on quality of small fruits and grapes. HortSci. 18(4):412. (93KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1982. Ethephon as a harvesting aid for Concord grapes. Ark Farm Res 31(1):15. (43KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1981. Yield and quality response of Concord grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) to mechanized vine pruning. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 32(4):280. (58KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1981. Mechanical pruning of grapes. Proc. 102nd Annu. Mtg. Ark. State Hort. Soc., p. 141. (43KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1980. Mechanical trimming and node adjustment of cordon-trained 'Concord' grapevines. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:310.
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1980. Yield and quality response of ‘Concord’ grapes to training systems and pruning severity in Arkansas. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:307. (42KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1980. Training systems for mechanization in vineyards. Proc. 101 Ann. Mtg. Ark. Hort. Soc. (24KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1980. Mechanical pruning of cordon-trained Concord grapevines. Ark. Farm Res. 29(2):12. (23KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1979. Mechanical pruning of cordon-trained Concord grapevines. Proc. 100th Annu. Mtg. Ark. State Hort. Soc. p. 76. (52KB)
Morris, J.R., Nelson. G.S., Kattan, A.A. and Cawthon, D.L. 1978. Developing a mechanized harvesting and production system for erect blackberries. HortSci. 13(3):228. (523KB)
Morris, J.R., Kattan, A.A., Nelson, G.S., and Cawthon, D.L. 1978. Developing a mechanized system for production, harvesting, and handling strawberries. HortSci. 13(4):413. (1,003KB)
Morris, J.R. and Cawthon, D.L. 1975. Effect of mechanical pruning on yield and quality of 'Concord' grapes. Proc. 96th Annu. Mtg. Ark. State Hort. Soc. p. 99. (25KB)
Morris, J.R., Fleming, J.W., Benedict, R.H., and McCaskill, D.R. 1973. Maintaining juice quality of 'Concord' grapes harvested mechanically. Ark. Farm Res. 22(1):9. (42KB)
Morris, J.R., Fleming, J.W., Benedict, R.H., and McCaskill, D.R. 1972. Effects of sulfur dioxide on postharvest quality of mechanically harvested grapes. Ark. Farm Res. 21(2):5.(31KB)
Benedict, R.H., Fleming, J.W., and Morris, J.R. 1971. Postharvest changes in quality of mechanically harvested 'Concord' grapes. Ark. Farm Res. 20(1):10. (34KB)
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