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Viticulture and Enology Research Program


Areas of Activity

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Support of Arkansas's Wine and Grape Industry - Uncorking Arkansas's Wine Country


Wine Grapes and Winemaking

UA Wine Research Program

Winemaking is an important industry in Arkansas and this industry's ability to produce quality wines has been enhanced by research at the University of Arkansas' Institute of Food Science and Engineering. Studies on wine grape varieties have examined the effects of the preharvest complex on wine quality, yield, maturity rates, pH, acidity, soluble solids, etc.

The economics of wine production in Arkansas have been studied in some detail. The effects of yearly fluctuation, expansion of winery operations into juice grape markets and the use of red wines to address the French Paradox can greatly influence a winery's bottom line.

Several studies focused on preventing oxidation and browning in white wines and juices and different methods to reduce the use of sulfur dioxide. Ultrafiltration and chemical agents such as ascorbic acid, bentonite, and others were examined for their ability to reduce browning. Storage and oxidative stability of sparkling wines and wine coolers also were studied.

Additional topics of interest to winemakers such as anthocyanins, volatile terpenes, resveratrol and yeast isolates of wine grapes have also been studied. Wine styles were modified using a thin film evaporator, and the effects of using grape juice concentrate to produce high-alcohol wines have been studied.




Publications

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Threlfall, R.T. and J.R. Morris. 2009. Use of yeast supplements during wine production. Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry J. 24(6):32-39.

Main, G.L.and Morris, J.R. 2008. Impact of pruning methods on yield components and juice and wine composition of Cynthiana grapes. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 59:179-187.

Morris, J.R. 2008. Considerations for starting a winery. Ark. AES Research Report #983.

Main, G.L., Threlfall, R., and Morris, J.R. 2007. Reduction of malic acid in wine using natural and genetically enhanced microorganisms. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 58:341.(200KB)

Main, G.L. and Morris, J.R. 2007. Effect of macerating enzymes and postfermentation grape-seed tannin on the color of Cynthiana wines. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 58:365.(175KB)

Main, G.L., Morris, J.R., and Threlfall, R. 2007. Use of a thin-film vacuum evaporator to produce white and dessert-style wines. Wine East 2007 Buyers' Guide. p. 185.

Morris, J.R., G.L. Main and R.K. Striegler. 2007. Evaluation of wines made from new cultivars. In: Program and Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Midwest Grape & Wine conference. Osage Beach, Mo. Feb. 3-5. Pp. 173-180.

Threllfall, R.T., Main, G.L., and Morris, J.R. 2006. Effect of freezing grape berries and heating must samples on extraction and analysis of components of red wine grape cultivars. Austral. J Grape and Wine Research 12(2):161.

Main, Gary. 2005. Growing and vinting Cynthiana/Norton grapes. Proceedings of 24th Annual Horticultural Industries Show, Fort Smith, AR January 14-15. pg 77.(105k)

Striegler, R.K., Morris,J.R., Main, G.L., and Lake, C.B. 2005. Effect of rootstock on fruit composition, yield, growth, and vine nutritional status of Cabernet franc. In: Proceedings of the Grapevine Rootstocks: Current Use, Research, and Application. Feb. 5, Osage Beach, Mo. p. 84.

Morris, J.R., Main, G.L., and Oswald, O.L. 2004. Flower cluster and shoot thinning for crop control in French-American hybrid grapes. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 55:423. (411K)

Main, G.L. and Morris, J.R. 2004. Leaf-removal effects on Cythiana yield, juice composition, and wine composition . Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 55:147.(611K)

Walker, T., Morris, J., Threllfall, R., and Main, G. 2004. Quality, sensory and cost comparison for pH reduction of Syrah wine using ion exchange or tartaric acid. J Food Qual. 27:483.

Walker, T., Morris, J., Threllfall, R., and Main, G. 2003. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of Cynthiana. J Agric. Food Chem. 51:1543.

Walker, T., Morris, J., Threllfall, R., and Main, G. 2003. Control of Cynthiana wine attributes using ion exchange on different prefermentation treatments. Amer. J Enol Vitic. 54(1):67.(523K)

Walker, T., Morris, J., Threllfall, R., and Main, G. 2003. Analysis of wine components in Cythiana and Syrah wines. J Agric. Food Chem. 51:1543.

Hatfield, J., Morris, J., and Threllfall, R. 2003. Minimizing color degradation in blush wines. J Food Qual. 26:367. (734K)

Walker, T., Morris, J., Threllfall, R., and Main, G. 2002. pH modification of Cythiana wine using cationic exchange. J Agric Food Chem. 50:6346.

Threllfall, R.T. and Morris, J.R. 2002. Using dimethyldicarbonate to minimize sulfur dioxide for prevention of fermentation from excessive yeast contamination in juice and semi-sweet wine. J Food Sci. 67:2758.(538K)

Striegler, R.K., Lake, C.B., Morris, J.R., Threllfall, R.T., Main, G.L., and Graves, S.G. 2002. Minimal input production systems affect yield and juice quality of 'Sunbelt' grapes in California's San Joaquin Valley. HortScience 37(6):867.

Main, G.L., Morris, J.R. and Striegler, R.K. 2002. Rootstock effects on Chardonel productivity, fruit, and wine composition. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 53(1):37. (133KB)

Buescher, W.A., Siler, C.E., Morris, J.R., Threlfall, R.T., Main, G.L., and Cone, G.C. 2001. High alcohol wine production from grape juice concentrates. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 52(4):345. (200KB)

Threlfall, R.T., Morris, J.R. and Mauromoustakos, A. 1999 Effects of fining agents on trans-resveratrol concentration in wine. Austral. J of Grape and Wine Res. 5:22.

Threlfall, R.T., Morris, J.R. and Mauromoustakos, A. 1999. Effect of variety, ultraviolet light exposure, and enological methods on the trans-resveratrol level of wine. Amer. J Enol. Vitic.50(1):57-64. (170KB)

Morris, J.R. 1997. The wine and juice industry in Arkansas. Amer. Wine Soc. J 29(3)94-96.

Morris, J.R. 1997. Wine grape cultivars for Arkansas. Wine East Buyers Guide p.30.

Blevins, J.M. and Morris, J.R. 1997. Health benefits of wine and grape juice. HortTech 7(3):228.

Threlfall, R.T. and Morris, J.R. 1996. Effect of viticultural and enological methods on the resveratrol content of wines. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. and Enol. NY. p. 100. (43KB)

Siler, C. and Morris, J.R. 1996. High alcohol fermentation of grape juice concentrate. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. and Enol. NY. p. 97. (46KB)

Morris, J.R. 1996. Evaluating drip irrigation in eastern vineyards. Wine East. 24(4):16.

Main, G. and Morris, J.R. 1996. A comparison of table and late harvest style Cayuga white wines made with amelioration, freeze and Evapor concentrated juices. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. and Enol., NY. (120KB)

Johnston, T.V. and Morris, J.R. 1996. Separation of anthocyanin pigments in wine by low pressure column chromotagraphy. J. Food Sci. 61(1):109. (123KB)

Johnston, T.V. and Morris, J.R. 1996. HPLC analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble wine pigment liquid chromatographic fractions. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. and Enol., NY. p. 47. (62KB)

Johnston, T.V. and Morris, J.R. 1996. Circular dichroism and spectroscopic studies of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon and Vitis rotundifolia cv Noble Red wine liquid chromatographic fraction. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 47(3):323. (92KB)

Johnston, T.V. and Morris, J.R. 1996. Analysis of red wine pigment polymers by low pressure liquid chromatography. Proc. 4th Internat. Symp. Cool Clim. Vitic. and Enol., NY. p. 52. (96KB)

Morris, J.R., Main, G., and Threlfall, R. 1995. Fermentations: Problems, solutions, and preventions. DWWGeisenheim, Llemand Publication, p. 89. (119KB)

Morris, J.R. and Main, G.L. 1995. Fining agents for wine. Proc. 14th Annu. New Mexico Grape Growers and Wine Makers Conf. Albuquerque, NM. p. 116. (49KB)

Main, G.L. and Morris, J.R. 1994. Color of Seyval blanc juice and wine as affected by juice fining and bentonite fining during fermentation. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 45(4):417. (136KB)

Marks, A.C. and Morris, J.R. 1993. Ascorbic acid effects on the post-disgorgement oxidative stability of sparkling wine. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 44(2):227. (163KB)

Macaulay, L.E. and Morris, J.R. 1993. Influence of cluster exposure and winemaking processes on monoterpenes of Golden Muscat. Proc. of 3rd In't. Symp. on Cool Climate Vitic. Enology, Geisenheim, Germany. pp. 187-90. (128KB)

Workman, D.S. and Morris, J.R. 1992. Storage stability of wine coolers as influenced by juice content and citric acid addition. J Food Qual. 15(2):39. (87KB)

Panagiotakopoulou, V. and Morris, J.R. 1991. Chemical additives to reduce browning in white wines. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 42(3):255. (163KB)

Main, G.L. and Morris, J.R. 1991. Color of Riesling and Vidal wines as affected by bentonite, cufex and sulfur dioxide juice treatments. Amer. J. Enol. Vitic. 42(4):354. (88KB)

Goodwin, C.O. and Morris, J.R. 1991. Effect of ultrafiltration on wine quality and browning. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 42(4):347. (182KB)

Reisch, B.I., Pooh, R.M., Robinson, W.B., Henick-Kling, T., Watson, J.P., Kimball, K.H., Martins, M.H., Miller, D.P., Edson, C.E. and Morris, J.R.. 1990. 'Chardonel' grape. N.Y. Food and Life Sci. Bul. 132. (44KB)

Reisch, B.I., Pooh, R.M., Robinson, W.B., Henick-Kling, T., Watson, J.P., Kimball, K.H., Martens, M.H., Howell, G.S., Miller, D.P., Edson, C.E., and Morris, J.R. 1990. Cultivar and germplasm releases 'Chardonel' Grape. HortScience 25(12):1666. (102KB)

Huckleberry, J.M., Morris, J.R., James, C., Marx, D. and Rathburn, I.M. 1990. Evaluation of wine grapes for suitability in juice production. J. Food Qual. 13:71. (144KB)

Moore, K.J., Johnson, M.G. and Morris, J.R. 1988. Yeasts on Arkansas white Riesling grapes and in musts. Ark. Farm Res. 37(3):13. (46KB)

Moore, K.J., Johnson, M.G. and Morris, J.R.. 1988. Indigenous yeast microflora on Arkansas white Riesling (Vitis vinifera) grapes and in model must systems. J. Food Sci. 53:1725. (61KB)

Sims, C.A. and Morris, J.R. 1987. Effects of fruit maturity and processing method on the quality of juices from French-American hybrid wine grape cultivars. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 38(2):89. (72KB)

Morris, J.R., Sims, C.A., Striegler, R.K., Cackler, S.D., and Donley, R.A. 1987. Effects of cultivar, maturity, cluster thinning, and excessive potassium fertilization on yield and quality of Arkansas wine grapes. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 38(4):260. (74KB)

Striegler, R.K. and Morris, J.R. 1985. Evaluating fruit maturity in Arkansas. Wines and Vines 66(6):39.

Sims, C.A. and Morris, J.R. 1985. A comparison of the color components and color stability of red wine from Noble and Cabernet Sauvignon at various pH levels. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 36(3):181. (122KB)

Striegler, R.K. and Morris, J.R. 1984. Yield and quality of wine grape cultivars in Arkansas. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 35(4):216. (67KB)

Striegler, R.K. and Morris, J.R. 1984. Yield and quality of Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars in Arkansas. Ark. Farm Res. 33(6):3. (49KB)

Sims, C.A. and Morris, J.R. 1984. Color and color stability of red wine from Noble (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) and Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) at various pH. Proc. Ark. Hort. Soc. 105th Ann. Mtg. p. 90. (100KB)

Morris, J.R., Sims, C.A. and Cawthon, D.L. 1984. Excessive potassium increases pH. Wines and Vines 65(6):36.

Morris,J.R., Sims, C.A., Bourque, J.E. and Oakes, J.L.. 1984. Relationship of must pH and acidity to the level of soluble solids in six French-American hybrid grapes. Ark. Farm Res. 33(3):4. (44KB)

Morris,J.R., Sims, C.A., Bourque, J.E. and Oakes, J.L. 1984. Influence of training system, pruning severity, and spur length on yield and quality of six French-American hybrid grape cultivars. Amer. J Enol. Vitic. 35(1):23. (235KB)

Morris,J.R., Sims, C.A., Bourque, J.E., and Oakes, J.L. 1984. Effects of training and pruning systems on yield of French-American hybrid wine grapes. Ark. Farm Res. 33(1):7. (41KB)

Striegler, K. and Morris, J.R.. 1983. Effects of cultivar, harvest date, and season on quality and yield of Arkansas wine grapes. Proc Ark. Hort. Soc. 104th Ann. Mtg. p.177. (120KB)

Morris, J.R. 1983. Effects of mechanical harvesting on the quality of small fruit and grapes. A.S.A.E. Pub 5-84:332. (126KB)

Forbess, R.C., Morris, J.R., Levy, T.L., Talbert, R.E. and Flynn, R.R. 1982. Exposure measurements of applicators who mix and spray paraquat in grape vineyards. HortScience 17:955. (61KB)



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