CAST researchers paused to take a group photo on location in Petra, Jordan. From left to right, Malcolm Williamson, Eileen Ernenwein, Caitlin Stevens, Katie Simon and Adam Barnes.

CAST researchers pause to take a group photo on location in Petra, Jordan.
From left to right, Malcolm Williamson, Eileen Ernenwein, Caitlin Stevens, Katie Simon and Adam Barnes.

Scanning History

CAST researcher Malcolm Williamson uses a scanner that utilizes light detection and ranging technology to scan the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions Katie Simon (left) and Eileen Ernenwein discuss data on location at Petra, Jordan. CAST researcher Malcolm Williamson is filmed using a laser scanner on location at Petra, Jordan. Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions Using state-of-the art laser scanning technology, CAST researchers produced this 3-D point cloud of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt. Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions Scanning the west end of the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral from the triforium level.

CAST researcher Malcolm Williamson uses a scanner that utilizes light detection and ranging technology to scan the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt.
Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions.

Katie Simon (left) and Eileen Ernenwein discuss data on location at Petra, Jordan.

CAST researcher Malcolm Williamson is filmed using a laser scanner on location at Petra, Jordan.
Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions.

Using state-of-the art laser scanning technology, CAST researchers produced this 3-D "point cloud" of the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt.
Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions.

Scanning the west end of the interior of St. Paul's Cathedral from the triforium level.

Time Scanners

Here's a sneak peek at how researchers at the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies helped unlock engineering mysteries in the pyramids of Egypt, St. Paul's Cathedral in London and the architectural wonders of the ancient Jordanian city of Petra.

See what channel AETN is broadcast on with the channel guide.

By Chris Branam
University Staff Writer

It started with a cold call in the dead of winter.

Adam Barnes, a researcher in the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies at the University of Arkansas, was headed into a meeting on Jan. 14, 2013, when he got a phone call from a London-based television producer who was interested in hiring a technical expert for a new documentary series on ancient structures.

“She was looking for someone who could laser scan,” said Barnes, referring to the center’s specialty, geospatial analysis and modeling. “After hearing what it involved, it was clear that she needed a team. We had several conversations over Skype within the next few days and things really moved quickly.”

Whirlwind of World’s Antiquities

Soon, researchers from CAST were traveling to historic locations around the world, including the pyramids in Egypt, St. Paul’s Cathedral in London and the ancient desert city of Petra in Jordan. They were filmed doing what they do best, using their advanced remote sensing technology to collect and analyze billions of measurements to form what is known as a point cloud, which provided a 3-D perspective of these structures but also solved some of the enduring engineering mysteries surrounding them.

The three-part documentary series, Time Scanners, will air nationally on PBS in July. According to PBS, the series “reveals physical and forensic history, allowing viewers to reach out and touch the past.”

To celebrate the premiere episode on July 1, the University of Arkansas will hold a watch party in Ken and Linda Sue Shollmier Hall, Room 250 of Vol Walker Hall. The event kicks off at 6:30 p.m.

“Our role in the series is portrayed strongly as the technologists, experts and analysts in gathering and interpreting the data,” said Malcolm Williamson, a research associate at CAST who collected and analyzed data in Egypt and Jordan.

Steve Burrows, executive vice president of WSP, a global engineering and design consulting firm, is the featured expert in Time Scanners. He said, “The laser scanning technology meant that we could analyze the ancient structures in a way that no one ever has before, and some of the things we found were incredible.”

Time Scanners premieres July 1 with “Egyptian Pyramids.” For the episode, Caitlin Stevens and Williamson traveled to Egypt to scan the pyramids — the tombs of the mighty pharaohs — to find out how they evolved from simple mud-brick structures to the most impressive buildings in the ancient world.

“One of my high points on the show was scanning the Great Pyramid of Giza,” Williamson said. “I thought that was really cool. How many people in the world get to do that?”

Three other current or former CAST researchers participated in the series: Eileen Ernenwein, Rachel Opitz and Katie Simon.

Huge Amount of Data, Tight Schedule

The production schedule for the series was tight, so the CAST researchers had to collect and analyze data in a couple of days. The process typically takes at least two weeks, said Simon, a research assistant at CAST who holds a Master of Arts degree in remote sensing applications in archaeology from the U of A.

“These were some pretty unique circumstances, so we were always thinking about making things work properly because we weren’t going to get a second chance,” she said.

Adam Barnes

"We took a long hike up to the Monastery. You come around a corner and the structure is carved into the rock and it is very tall and very impressive. Then it hit me. That was the moment where I thought, ‘I’ll be up here for two days getting to work on this site.’”

— Adam Barnes, one of the researchers at the Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies who conducted laser scanning and analysis in the ancient desert city of Petra, Jordan
Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions

The Center for Advanced Spatial Technologies, established in the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences in 1991, is dedicated to research and applications in geospatial analysis and modeling, remote sensing and digital photogrammetry. Remote sensing is the measurement or acquisition of information about an object without direct contact, such as by satellite imaging, aerial photography or radar. Photogrammetry is the science of recording, measuring and interpreting photographic images or other two-dimensional, remotely sensed data.

The researchers at CAST have diverse backgrounds. There are anthropologists, archaeologists, computer engineers and landscape architects.

“A lot of what we do is more science than art, but then there is some that is more art than science,” said Barnes, who holds a Master of Arts in geography from the University of Arkansas. “We can speak to an archaeologist or a classicist but we can also speak to a scientist. There is a marriage between disciplines. We speak all of those languages.”

For instance, Simon graduated from Utah State University with bachelor’s degrees in anthropology and art and had experience in cultural resource management in the western United States before coming to Fayetteville for graduate school.

“CAST is a fantastic place to work because it is a team-oriented environment,” Simon said. “We’re constantly using one another as resources to help augment our projects and our research. It’s fantastic to be surrounded by all the experts you could possibly need to help you make the best of whatever you are working on. In addition to being able to travel a lot, which is fun, it is amazing to be able to work with so many excellent people in the field.”

Published: 6/23/2014

Ellen Ernenwein uses ground-penetrating radar to image the subsurface in front of the Monastery in at Petra, Jordan.

Eileen Ernenwein uses ground-penetrating radar to image the subsurface in front of the Monastery at Petra, Jordan.

Caitlin Stevens, a researcher at CAST, prepares to scan the exterior of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions

Caitlin Stevens, a researcher at CAST, prepares to scan the exterior of St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
Photo courtesy Atlantic Productions