Problems Confronting the Ancient Cross Timbers

Juniper invasion in the wake of grazing, fire exclusion, and other human disturbances

Aerial application of broadleaf herbicide to kill oaks and release understory grasses for grazing
(note "flight lines" in un-killed oaks)

Aerial application of broadleaf herbicide and fire to clear the Cross Timbers. This was an ancient forest prior to treatment in the 1990s.

Logging for chip mills

Land clearing for suburban and ex-urban development.

Ex-urban development

Home site development, this property is near the Keystone Ancient Forest Preserve.

Historic oil industry.

Abandoned oil facility

Brine-killed oaks near abandoned oil facility. The current oil and gas boom, and, ironically, wind energy emplacements, continue to clear ancient Cross Timbers.

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